Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2012

Web Assisted Learning Initiatives (Research Study of Using Web-Based Teaching Materials in Various Courses)

Dr. Shafiq-ur-Rehman, Dr. Rizwana Bashir and Prof. Atif Hassan

Department of Economics, University of Karachi, Pakistan
DA College of Business, Karachi, Pakistan

Abstract– The World Wide Web is acknowledged as a rich resource of knowledge easily knocked by any person who has the skills necessary to login to the internet. It facilitates potent possibilities of retrieving information about any topic of interest. This paper describes the experiences of the authors and other faculty at University of Karachi and DA College of Business that encourages sharing of web-assisted teaching and learning materials. These experiences indicate that such materials can increase productivity of both the processes i.e., teaching as well as learning.

Keywords—Web-based Teaching, Learning, Courses and Sharing

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 1-6)

Stagnant Memory and Timing investigation of Embedded Systems Code

M. Shankar, Dr. M. Sridar and Dr. M. Rajani

of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kuppam Engineering College, Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, India
Bharath University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract– Static program analysis by abstract interpretation is an efficient method to determine properties of embedded software. One example is value analysis, which determines the values stored in the processor registers. Therefore, utmost carefulness and state-of-the-art machinery have to be applied to make sure that an application meets all requirements. To do so lays in the responsibility of the system designer(s). As more software and embedded code saw use in safety-critical and avionics applications, an industry standard group developed the RTCA/DO-178B: Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification.

Keywords—Branch Prediction, Worst Case Execution Time, Stack and WCET

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 7-12)

Inter-Area Oscillation Damping by Optimal Design of PSS Using an Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm

Bahram Noshad, Mina Goodarzi and Bahman Mohammadi Berenj Abadi

Department of Electrical Engineering, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, Iran
Department of Mathematics, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Ghir Entefaee Elmo Fan University, Urmia, Iran

Abstract– In this paper, the parameters of a power system stabiliser (PSS) with help of a combination of a Differential Evolution algorithm (DE) and Local Search Algorithm (called the DELSA (Memetic DE algorithm)) are introduced, which are designed independently, converge to the correct and optimal solution in a small number of iterations and are attuned to damping low frequency oscillations. Suppose that the DE algorithm searches in a wide-ranging area, whereas the local search focuses on the attraction area, which probably has the optimal solution. We studied the three-area power system that was simulated in the time domain by MATLAB. The outcomes of simulations showed that without the PSS at the time of error occurrence, the damping and synchroniser torque were reduced. Thus, the system becomes unstable, and low frequency oscillations such as inter-area oscillations are generated, which are damped if we employ optimal and coordinate PSS.

Keywords—Differential Evolution Algorithm (DE), Inter-area Oscillations, Local Search (LS), Memetic DE Algorithm, PSS and Small Signal Stability

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 13-19)

Institutional Challenges in Water Supply Development and Sustainability in Nigeria - A Case of a Government-Owned Water Agency

Akhionbare, W.N., Akhionbare, S. M. O., Ikhile, C.I. and Ubuoh, E.A.

Department of Project Management Tech., Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Department of Geography, University of Benin, Nigeria
Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Abstract– The study examined the institutional setup and the activities of a government-owned agency in order to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of its operations in water supply provision for the populace. It was observed that the institutional set-up of the establishment does not make for autonomy and independence of decisions. Constant interference of government in its daily activities and mass retrenchment of professionals negatively affected its efficiency and was an obvious drain to government in terms of trained/skilled manpower. Staffing was poor in relevant professions, with workers being inadequately motivated. Non-availability of a well-defined approved government edict and organizational structure, supervision by Board of Directors who lack relevant background/experience in water supply operations and a high turnover of CEOs were observed. Adequate water supply provision was thus far-fetched. The selection of Board of Directors for a highly technical establishment like the Water Agency should not be political but should involve the identification and appointment of qualified and experienced people who can contribute meaningfully to policy formulation and the positive direction of the system. Legal reforms are needed in the edicts establishing it in order to change its orientation or operating environment from that of the Civil service to a serious business organization. The establishment must be given clear objectives by the Government, with necessary legal and institutional frameworks to enable it achieve set-down objectives. Management should be granted autonomy to function without political interference and should be allowed to hire, discipline and train the right caliber of staff at the appropriate cost and time.

Keywords—Autonomy, Edict, Organogram, Retrenchment, Interference, Motivation and Turnover

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 20-25)

Texture Segmentation Concept Using Fuzzy Logic

Afshin Shaabany and Fatemeh Jamshidi

Department of Electrical Engineering, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

Abstract– This article presents texture segmentation concept using supervised method in fuzzy logic. The data set used is the textile textures. The image is split into 4 X 4 windows. The features of the windows are presented to the input layer of the fuzzy logic. The output of fuzzy logic depends upon the radii of the clusters used during segmentation. The implementation of the algorithm is made by the fuzzy membership its probability indicates the spatial influence of the neighboring pixels on the centre pixel.

Keywords—Fuzzy Logic, Spatial Influence and Texture Segmentation

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 26-29)

Two Stage Discrete Time Extended Kalman Filter Scheme for Micro Air Vehicle

Sadia Riaz and Atif Bin Asghar

Department of Mechanical Engineering (DME), College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (CEME), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract– Navigation is Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) is one of the most challenging areas of twenty first century’s research. Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) is the miniaturized configuration of aircraft with a size of six inches in length and below the weight of hundred grams, which includes twenty grams of payload as well. Due to its small size, MAV is highly affected by the wind gust and therefore the navigation of Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) is very important because precise navigation is a very basic step for the control of the Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). This paper presents two stage cascaded Discrete time Extended Kalman Filter while using INS/GPS based navigation. First stage of this scheme estimates the Euler angles of Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) whereas the second stage of this scheme estimates the position of Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) in terms of height, longitude and latitude. As the system is considered as non-linear, so Extended Kalman Filter is used. On-board sensors in first stage included MEMS Gyro, MEMS Accelerometer, MEMS Magnetometer whereas second stage includes GPS.

Keywords—Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS), Micro Air Vehicle (MAV), Measurement Covariance Matrix and Process Covariance Matrix

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 30-33)

Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Networks and a Study on File Download Minimization

Kolan Helini, P. Prahanthi and G. Radha Devi

Samskruti College of Engineering and Technolog, India

Abstract– The peer-to-peer file-sharing applications are becoming increasingly popular and account for more than 70% of the Internet’s bandwidth usage. Measurement studies show that a typical download of a file can take from minutes up to several hours depending on the level of network congestion or the service capacity fluctuation. In this paper, we consider two major factors that have significant impact on average download time, namely, the spatial heterogeneity of service capacities in different source peers and the temporal fluctuation in service capacity of a single source peer. We point out that the common approach of analyzing the average download time based on average service capacity is fundamentally flawed. We rigorously prove that both spatial heterogeneity and temporal correlations in service capacity increase the average download time in P2P networks and then analyze a simple, distributed algorithm to effectively remove these negative factors, thus minimizing the average download time. We show through analysis and simulations that it outperforms most of other algorithms currently used in practice under various network configurations.

Keywords—Peer-to-Peer, Stochastic Stability and Stochastic Coupling

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 34-41)

The Potentials of Solid Wastes Utilization for Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria

Ubuoh E. A., Akhionbare, W.N., Akhionbare, S.M.O., Akande, S.O. and Ikhile, C.I.

Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Department of Project Management, Federal University of Technology, Owerri
Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri
Department of Geography, University of Benin, Benin City

Abstract– Soils from solid waste dumpsites in Owerri municipality were analyzed to determine their possible use for agriculture. Samples were taken from profile pits dug at Egbeada, Aladinma and Nekede Saw Mill dumps and control sites at depths of 0-15cm, 15-30 and 30-45cm. They were analyzed for particle size distribution, pH, organic carbon, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, Ca, Mg, K, Na, exchangeable base, base saturation and cation exchangeable capacity. Results of the mechanical analysis showed that all soil samples at the various horizons in all sites are sandy loam in texture. At the 0 – 15cm horizon, there was an elevation of soil pH at Egbeada (4.86 to 7.07); Aladinma (4.25 – 6.05); but decreased at Nekede (6.94 – 6.03). Levels of organic carbon, organic matter, nitrogen, Ca, Mg, K, Na, exchangeable base, base saturation and cation exchangeable capacity were found to be high in the horizon between 0.15 and 15-30cm higher than those of the controls but there was an inconsistency in variation in the total phosphorus content of the soil in the three sites and their controls. Soil cation exchange capacities for all dumps increased above their control site values at all three horizons implying an increased soil fertility, resilience and soil aggregation which reduce the chance of soil erosion and crusting. The presence of the dump improved the soil structure and its use in agriculture. Urban solid waste management can be valuable in improving soil fertility and alleviating the over-cultivation effects of Imo State agricultural soils.

Keywords—Solid Waste, Biodegradation, Nutrient Release, Aggregation, Soil Structure, Fertility and Agriculture

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 42-45)