Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2012

Process Optimization of Sulphuric Acid Leaching of Alumina from Nteje Clay Using Central Composite Rotatable Design

R. O. Ajemba and O. D. Onukwuli

Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B. 5025, Awka, Anambra, Nigeria

Abstract– Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the sulphuric acid leaching of alumina from Nteje clay. Such optimization was undertaken to ensure a high efficiency over the experimental ranges employed, and to evaluate the interactive effects of the calcination temperature, leaching temperature, acid concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, and stirring speed on the leaching process in order to improve the conditions employed in the batch process. A total of 48 leaching experiments were carried out employing the detailed conditions designed by response surface methodology based on the central composite rotatable design. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that a second order polynomial regression equation was appropriate for fitting the experimental data. The experimental confirmation tests showed a correlation between the predicted and experimental responses (R2 = 0.9357). The optimum conditions for the process parameters were obtained as: 675 0C calcination temperature; 97 0C leaching temperature; 2.97 mol/l acid concentration; 0.03 g/ml solid-to-liquid ratio; and 476 rpm stirring speed. Under these optimum leaching conditions, an 81.87% alumina was achieved.

Keywords— Optimization, Response surface methodology, Alumina, Leaching and Clay

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Performance Enhancement of Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) System with Diversity

Ghulam Abbas, Ebtisam Ahmed, Waqar Aziz, Saqib Saleem and Qamar-ul-Islam

Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract– MIMO is one of the techniques proposed to 3G and 4G LTE-A systems for its added benefits of higher data rates and low bit error rates. The gist of MIMO working is its ability to increase number of channels; thus increasing diversity gain. Correspondingly, more users are accommodated in one communication system. In this work, different MIMO schemes more specifically receive and transmit diversity are analyzed using MATLAB Simulations and the performance criteria are bit error rates (BER), Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) and channel capacity. MIMO has perfect results but it increases system complexity and this particular constraint limits its implementation to 2×2. More advanced system now days are a bit advanced 4×4 system but this is the limit till now. It’s an open field and requires much attention for great explorations.

Keywords— MIMO, LTE-A, MATLAB and Diversity Gain

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Computing Game Design with Automata Theory

Noman Sohaib Qureshi, Hassan Mushtaq, Muhammad Shehzad Aslam, Muhammad Ahsan, Mohsin Ali and Muhammad Aqib Atta

Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore (Gujranwala Campus-RCET), Pakistan

Abstract– Use of Computational and Automata Theory is common now a day in lexical analysis in compilers and programming languages, morphological analysis, image compression, bioinformatics etc. However in computer games and computing game theory its use is not widespread. This paper summarizes the design of an arcade game using automata theory tools. Deterministic finite state automaton (DFSA) and non-deterministic finite state automaton (NDFSA) are used primarily in various levels of designing the game.

Keywords— Morphological analysis, Image Compression, DFSA and NDFSA

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An Appropriate Approach for Condition Monitoring of Planetary Gearbox Based on Fast Fourier Transform and Least-Square Support Vector Machine

M. Khazaee, H. Ahmadi, M. Omid and A. Moosavian

Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural machinery, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

Abstract– Planetary gearboxes play a significant role in industrial applications and the necessity of condition monitoring with non-destructive tests is increasing. In this paper we presented an intelligent method for fault detection and classification of this gearbox using vibration signals. This method focuses on the worn gears detection; therefore three classes were defined, namely, healthy gears, ring gear with worn tooth face and planetary gear with worn tooth face. Each class has 60 samples that divided in two parts: 45 samples for training data and 15 samples for testing system. The time signals were transferred to frequency domain by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Then 24 statistical features of frequency signals were extracted. The extracted feature was used to feed SVM for fault classification. Using these techniques together, 95.6% and 92.3% classification accuracy is gained for train and test data which show the quality and high ability of generated fault diagnosis system.

Keywords— Fault Detection, Condition Monitoring, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Planetary Gearboxes

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A Tutorial about Architecture, Applications, Protocols of Multi-Hop Multiple Access Control Layer Approach of IEEE, 8o2.11s

Mujahid Shah, Muhammad Asif khan, Syed Haider Ali Shah, Muhammad Shahab khan, Aytizaz Ahmed and Fanny khan

Gandahara University Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract– This tutorial explains the major properties of IEEE. 8o2.11s demonstrating the pros and corns of the multiple access control (MAC) layer approach in contrast to customary layer 3 model to Multihope Wireless network (MWN). To accomplish, this effort offer a thorough investigation of 8o2.11s traffic confine in a real test bed, by exceptional concentration to the path discovery method. The gradually details of Mesh methods shows how many of the plan options might contact on spread ness and on wideness and on a dependability of such a Networks. One very important characteristic of IEEE 8o2.11s is a truth that a Mesh network is executed at link layer, so as a result it must be depending on MAC addresses not on an IP addresses for its processes. This characteristic allows the plan and the improvement of a new CPU –a free network device which gives layer two Multihope communications.

Keywords— IEEE 8o2.11s, Multihope Wireless Networks, Wireless mesh Networks and HWMP

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Performance Evaluation of Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing Technique for Wireless Channel

Saqib Saleem and Khurram Shahzad

Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract– In this paper the performance of energy detection based spectrum sensing in multipath fading environment is analyzed using OFDM multiplexing technique. A predetermined value of probability of detection and probability of false Alarm is used in order to calculate the optimum threshold value. That threshold value is used to evaluate the performance in the sense of probability of detection Vs SNR. This is known as Constant detection rates (CDR) and Constant False Alarm rates (CFAR). In real time scenarios the noise variance is unknown therefore both known and unknown noise variance cases are also discussed here. MATLAB simulations are used to analyze comparisons in performance for different values of predetermined probabilities of detection and also for different Channel length.

Keywords— CDR, CFAR, CR, Channel Length, Channel Taps and Energy Detection

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Mining Educational Data Using Classification to Decrease Dropout Rate of Students

Dr. Saurabh Pal

Department of Computer Applications, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur – 222001 (U.P.), India

Abstract– In the last two decades, number of Higher Education Institutions (HEI) grows rapidly in India. Since most of the institutions are opened in private mode therefore, a cut throat competition rises among these institutions while attracting the student to got admission. This is the reason for institutions to focus on the strength of students not on the quality of education. This paper presents a data mining application to generate predictive models for engineering student’s dropout management. Given new records of incoming students, the predictive model can produce short accurate prediction list identifying students who tend to need the support from the student dropout program most. The results show that the machine learning algorithm is able to establish effective predictive model from the existing student dropout data.

Keywords— Data Mining, Machine Learning Algorithms, Dropout Management and Predictive Models

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A Roller Coaster Game Design using Automata Theory

Noman Sohaib Qureshi, Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Sohaib, Muhammad Arshad, Rizwan Ali Sabir and Asma Maqsood

Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore (Gujranwala Campus-RCET), Pakistan

Abstract– Automata Theory is a useful tool in multidisciplinary computing and scientific research. Game design is also an area where Automata theory may be applied successfully. Video games are an automaton itself. In computing, every software application is automata behind the scene working on the principle algorithms that automates its execution. This paper presents the design of a roller coaster game.

Keywords— Automata Theory, Game Design and Roller Coaster Game

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Evaluation of the Effects of Acid Activation on Adsorptive Properties of Clay from Ukpor in Bleaching Palm Oil

R. O. Ajemba and O. D. Onukwuli

Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B. 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract– This work presents the characterization and bleaching property evaluation of set of adsorbents prepared by the acid activation of clay from Ukpor, Anambra state, Nigeria. The activation was done using hydrochloric acid of varying concentrations ranging from 1 – 5 M at 900C for 2 hours 30 minutes. The chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of the prepared adsorbents were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The analyses showed that hydrochloric acid caused an exchange of Al3+, Fe3+, and Mg2+ with H+ ions which led to the modification of the clay crystalline structure. The bleaching capacities of the adsorbents were tested in bleaching refined palm oil. The results showed that the adsorbents were suitable with the one prepared with 4M HCl given the best result. The adsorption isotherms of the bleaching process were studied and Freundlich equation was more applicable than Langmuir equation.

Keywords— Activation, Characterization, Bleaching, Isotherm, Hydrochloric Acid and Clay

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Techniques about Data Replication for Mobile Ad-hoc Network Databases

Rashid Azeem and Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad Khan

Director of Institute of Computer Management Sciences (ICMS), Pakistan

Abstract– Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a Network, which permit Mobile Servers and Clients to commune in lack of a permanent Infrastructure. MANET is a rapid and rising region of study as it discover utilize a diversity of applications. in turn to make possible well-organized Information access and bring up to date, Databases are arranged on MANETs. Such Databases, which function on MANETs, are passed on to MANET Databases. Since Mobility and Power constrain of the Server and Client influence Data accessibility in MANETs, Data in MANET are replicated. Numeral of Data Replication techniques has been projected for MANET Databases. This scheme recognizes topics drawn in MANETs Data Replication and tries to categorize presented MANET Data Replication techniques found on problems they deal with limitation and presentation. Additionally, this paper also suggest criterion for choosing suitable Data Replication techniques for a variety of applications requirements in conclusion, the document end with a argument on future research directions.

Keywords— Data Replication, Techniques, Applications and Databases

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Analysis of a Laboratory Bicycle Ergometer System Using Grand Canonical Ensemble

Chwukwuneke J.L., Achebe C.H., Okolie P.C.O., and *Chukwumuanya E.O.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, NnamdiAzikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka, Nigeria
Department of Industrial/Production Engineering, NnamdiAzikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka, Nigeria

Abstract– This research work, “analysis of a laboratory bicycle ergometer system using grand canonical ensemble” was employed to study the muscular work, the heartbeat and the rate of energy loss when a body undergoes a particular work. The essence was to understand and to interpret measurable macroscopic properties of a system and thus establish valid relationships among measureable variables in analytical manner over time. The system was integrated with the use of free surface energy while applying appropriate thermodynamic ensemble to get absolute values for the measured properties. The system was analysed and regression line equation of R=2.4W-2.24 was obtained. The results obtained from both composite trapezoidal rule and regression approach to the system analysis was compared. Absolute values of energy and heartbeat were obtained as Eabs = 27711.936 Calorie and Hb(abs) = 3955.500 per min respectively.

Keywords— Ergometer, Ensemble, Grand Canonical, Macroscopic Properties, Regression and Statistical Thermodynamics

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Study on Effective Structural Parameters on Drying Rate of Kiwi Fruits in a Solar EHD Dryer

M.J. Dalvand, S.S. Mohtasebi and S. Rafiee

Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

Abstract– Applying an electric field to some water solutions or food materials has shown experimentally for increasing the drying rate. High voltage electric field drying technology as a novel method of non-thermal processing has been used particularly for heat sensitivity materials. This system includes: a high voltage power supply, grounded electrode, discharge electrode and some measurement instruments. In this method, an electric field was applied cross the interface of samples via electrodes located above and under the samples surface. Effects of three different grounded plates, namely galvanized iron, aluminum and copper on drying rate of kiwi fruit were studied , Moreover the effects of two types of grounded plates consist of flat plate and grid plate were also investigated . Results showed that effect of opening ratio of grounded electrode on drying rate was significant at less than 1 % probability level (P<0.01).

Keywords— Electric Field, Electrode, Drying Rate, High Voltage and Kiwi Fruit

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