Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2021

Determination and Estimation of Silica and Some Elements in White Sand Collected from Kutum Area, North Darfur State, (Sudan)

Abdul Fatah Ibrahim Younis Sam, Adam Hassan Elhaj Yousif, Mohammed Sulieman Ali Eltoum

University of AlFashir, Faculty of Education, Department of Chemistry, Sudan
Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Science, Department of Chemistry, Sudan

Abstract- The aim of the research to determine and estimate silica and some elements in the white sand collected from Kutum area. And the study was compared with previous studies in Sudan and other countries; it has also been compared with USA, UK and Indian standards specification for white sand in glass industries. Samples were collected from Kutum area close to valley near a mountain from different depths and from surface of the earth by using hand tools and the samples were mixed and put in plastic bag for analysis, and characterization, by using analytical techniques such as X ray Florescence (XRF), inductive couple plasma mass spectra (ICP MS) and infrared (IR). Other methods were used such as loss ignition at 10000C to determinate loss on sand, the gravimetric technique, subtraction methods and acid leaching to obtain metals oxide by percentage in the sand sample. The results revealed that sample contain metal oxides by percentage different in sand sample. The silica (SiO2) is having the highest percentage 94.84% (approximately 95%), followed by Al2O3 2.94, Fe2O3 0.39% and CaO 1.45%. According to American, British and Indian standard specification for white sand used in industries, the white sand of Kutum area can be used as source of silica for glass industries, ceramic and solar cells.

Keywords- White Sand, Silica, ICP-MS, XRF and Gravimetric Technique

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Determining equations for the Third Order Non-linear Differential Equation: y"' = y y" + y'2

Rodgers K. Adenyah, Elizabeth Kiburu

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Pwani University, P.O. Box 195, 80108 Kilifi, Kenya

Abstract- Determining equations of a differential equation are partial differential equations that are used to obtain the generator of infinitesimal transformation for a non-linear differential equation. In this paper we obtain the determining equations for the third order non-linear differential equation y"' = y y" + y'2. The determining equations play a big role in obtaining infinitesimal symmetries, which are later used to reduce high ordered non-linear differential equations to first order.

Keywords- Determining Equations, Lie Theory, Differential Equation, Generator and Infinitesimal Transformation

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Analysis of the Optical Properties of the Silver Oxide Compound Prepared by the Laser-Induced Plasma Technique

Madyan A. Khalaf, Yassir A. Baqar

Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract- In this work, we study the effect laser energy on the optical properties of pure silver oxide films at different energy (E = 250, 300, 350 and 400). The films prepared by using the laser-induced plasma at wavelength of laser 1064 nm and duration 9 ns under pressure reached to 2.5×10-2 mbar. Since the plane of the laser beam was at an angle of 45 to the horizon, laser pulses were shone on the solid surface of the silver oxide. The optical properties of all films have also been studied through the absorbance spectrum of the range of the wavelength (350 - 1100) nm, where the optical energy gap was direct transitions it was found that the value of the optical energy gap decreased with increasing the laser energy. The lower the energy gap value means that the higher the laser energies, the higher the donor crystal levels with it, which means that the electron needs less energy to move from the valence beam to the conduction beam.

Keywords- Laser Induced Plasma (LIP), Thin Films, Optical Properties and Analysis

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Keywords- FEM Study, Thermal Radiation and Laptop Injury

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