Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2012

Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Polyester Matrix Reinforced with Coconut Palm Frond Fiber for the Production of Low Strength Building Products

Anthony N. Anyakora

National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract– Composite panels made by hand lay-up technique from randomly oriented coconut palm frond fibers reinforced polyester matrix were investigated. The results show that the highest values of 10.26MPa and 78.98MPa for respective tensile and flexural strength properties were observed at 10% fibre content by weight in the composite, while the highest values of 40.20MPa and 227.89MPa for respective modulus of elasticity and modulus of rigidity properties were observed at 70% fibre content by weight. The highest value of 134.77 J/m impact strength properties was observed at 10% fibre content. These strength properties of coconut palm frond fibre composites are similar to those of coir, kenaf and talc fibre composites and consistent with literature, giving an indication that standardized products can be produced from coconut palm frond fibres. The Scanning Electron Micrographs of fractured surfaces of coconut palm frond fibre composites is an indication that surface treatment of coconut palm frond fibres is desirable. Similarly, the Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result of coconut palm frond fibre composites composed of higher ash content than the untreated fibre samples suggests a strong relationship between ash content and fibre treatment on the strength behavior of natural fibre composites. In terms of practical interest, the coconut palm frond fibre composites can be regarded as valid alternatives to replace some conventional fibres as reinforcement in polyester matrix in areas of low strength building products.

Keywords— Coconut Palm Frond, Tensile, Flexural, Modulus, Elasticity, Rigidity and Composite

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Potable Water Quality Characteristics of the Rural Areas of District Hangu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Mahmood Ahmad and Naseem Ahmad

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Bannu Campus , Pakistan
Bannu Medical College, Bannu, Pakistan

Abstract– The study assessed the bacteriological quality of potable sources of rural areas of District Hangu, Pakistan. The importance of the reference water quality data was felt owing to the spreading of the diarrhea in two rural areas of District Hangu in summer 2010. Response was made to the potential hazard identification and removal before it affects the peoples’ health. A total of thirty five water samples were collected and tested for faecal coliforms, pH and turbidity. All water samples were found within World Health Organization (WHO) guide values for pH and turbidity. It was observed, that twenty two water samples were deteriorated bacteriological either at source level or in between the source and household level. Results revealed that for an effective multi-barrier approach to succeed as a consumer end water quality risks should be addressed in an effective and sustainable manner, source protection and the ways in which people collect, transport, store and use water at household should also be improved, which includes overall hygiene and awareness of the inter-linkages between water safety and ill-health.

Keywords— Diarrhea, Faecal Coliforms, Source Protection and Water Quality

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The Use of Castor Oil as a Reactive Monomer in Synthesis of Flexible Polyurethane Foam

O. S. Ogunfeyitimi, A.O. Okewale, and P.K. Igbokwe

Production Section, Vitafoam Nigeria Plc, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
Chemical Engineering Department, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, P.M.B. 1001, Kwara State, Nigeria
Chemical Engineering Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, P.M.B. 5025, Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract– The use of castor oil as a reactive monomer has been studied in order to evaluate the use in synthesis of flexible polyurethane foam in this work. The study indicated that castor oil can be blended up to 25% with polyether polyol in the flexible polyurethane foam formulation. It was established that the products of this formulation can be used for all flexible foam applications while 30% blend of castor oil with polyether polyol showed a wide variations from the National standard recommended values with respect to density, porosity, and compression and elongation tests. The cost benefit analysis conducted on samples of flexible polyurethane foam produced showed a significant decrease (about 10%) in the cost of production when compared with foam produced with 100% polyol.

Keywords— Castor Oil, Polyurethane, Polyether Polyol and Flexible Foam

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Investigation of Thermodynamics Properties Effects on Spray Tip Penetration

Alireza Zamani Aghaie, Mohammad Hasan Kayhani and Mohammad Reza Modarres Razavi

Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

Abstract– Different breakup models are applied to numerically model a single-hole n-Hexadecane injector, in order to find the most appropriate model for predicting the spray behavior. The simulations are performed in OpenFOAM by use of dieselFoam solver. Spray tip penetration is calculated by applying the ETAB, Wave and KHRT breakup models. Results show that ETAB breakup model has better agreement with the experimental results, obtained by HP/HT spray rig of Chalmers University of Technology. As turbulence has an important impact on the droplet collision outcomes, standard k-ε turbulence model and two modified versions of this model are applied to the code in order to calculate the spray tip penetration. It is noticed that these modifications make the results approach to the experimental results. By choosing the most convenient model, the effect of ambient pressure and injection pressure are investigated. Increase in the injection pressure leads to an increase in the penetration length, while increase in ambient pressure shows a reverse effect.

Keywords— Breakup, Droplet Collision, Penetration Length, Pressure and Spray

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Application of Kinetic Rate Equations on the Removal of Copper(II) Ions by Adsorption Unto “Aloji” Kaolinite Clay Mineral

Dawodu Folasegun Anthony, Akpomie Godfrey Kovo, and Ogbu Ikeokwu Chris

Department of Chemistry (Industrial), University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Projects Development Institute (PRODA), Emene Industrial Layout, Enugu, Nigeria

Abstract– The kinetic mechanism of sorption for the removal of Copper (II) ions from aqueous solution was determined by the use of kinetic rate equations. The experiment was performed by batch adsorption technique at a pH range, (1-8), initial metal ion concentration, (20-100mg/l), adsorbent concentration, (1-5g) and contact time, (10-120min). The kaolinite mineral was found to be composed mainly of silica and alumina, FTIR analysis revealed the presence of some functional groups on the kaolinite surface such as O-H, C=C, C-O, C-F, C-Cl and C-Br. The sorption process was found to be pH dependent as optimum pH was achieved at 6.0. The effect of contact time showed that equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 50min, after which the adsorption became negligible with further increase in time up to 120min.Six kinetic rate equations which include the first order, second order, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and the Intraparticule diffusion equations were applied to investigate the mechanism of kinetics. All the rate equations applied gave good fit to the experimental data as indicated by the regression coefficient R2 > 0.9. The results of this study indicated that both chemisorptions and physisorption participate equally in the overall adsorption process between copper(II) ions and Aloji Kaolinite clay, which involves intraparticule diffusion as a major mechanism.

Keywords— Adsorption, Aloji Kaolinite, Copper, First-Order, Second-Order, Elovich Equation and Intraparticule Diffusion

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A New Approach to Two Forms of Blasius Equation on a Half-Infinite Domain with the Variational Iteration Method

Amir Malvandi

Mechanical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract– Blasius equation is one of the most important equations in fluid mechanics and many scientists have studied this equation analytically and numerically both. Due to the importance of this equation, there is a certain need to reduce the errors in the solutions. In this paper we have applied Variation Iteration Method (VIM) to Sakiadis and Blasius equations which was studied by other researchers as well [10] but using a better Padé approximant leaded to more accurate results in contrast with exact solution.

Keywords— Fluid Mechanics, VIM, Approach and Solution

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Batch Sorption of Lead(II) From Aqueous Stream by “Ekulu” Clay-Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

Dawodu F. A., Akpomie G. K., and Abuh M. A

Department of Chemistry (Industrial), University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Projects Development Institute (PRODA), Emene Industrial Layout, Enugu, Nigeria

Abstract– Ekulu clay obtained from Ekulu in Enugu state Nigeria was utilized as a low-cost adsorbent for Lead(II) ions from solution. Batch adsorption technique was used to investigate the effect of pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time and temperature on the adsorption process. Optimum pH of adsorption was obtained at a pH of 5.0 and equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 60 minutes. The Freundlich isotherm model gave a better fit to the adsorption data than the Langmuir isotherm. Kinetic studies revealed both the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order as appropriate mechanism in the explanation of the sorption process. However, the pseudo-first order model with R2 value of 0.994 was better than that of the pseudo-second order, 0.9833 obtained. Thermodynamics studies showed negative values of ΔG0 at all temperatures. An entropy change, ΔS0 of 32.93J/mol/K and enthalpy change ΔH0 of 7.108kJ/mol were recorded. The result of this study indicated that the adsorption of lead(II) ions unto Ekulu clay is spontaneous, highly disordered and endothermic in nature.

Keywords— Sorption, Ekulu Clay, Heavy Metals, Lead(II), Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamics

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Open Source Content Management Systems: A Canvass

Amjad Farooq, Furzand Javed, Majid Hussain, Tahir Abbas and Aatif Hussain

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan
Computer Science and Engineering Department, UET-Lahore, Pakistan
Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan

Abstract– The ubiquity of Omni-dimensional open source platforms imbued from the diversely pervasive market web requirements has lured the researchers to focus their concentration to develop an adaptable, evolvable and robust mechanism which could grapple lucratively with more-or-less all web development prerequisites. Content Management Systems (CMSs), the wide-ranging software suites, comprehensively confront the long sustaining relevant challenges and reflect a new wave in the era of web development and maintenance outside the realm of traditional stand alone tools. In recent times, a substantial number of open source content management systems (CMSs) have been proposed which have attracted a significant proportion of developers. WordPress, Joomla, and Drupal are the famous inclusions of this category. A sizeable number of analytical discussions, comparative analysis and closed surveys of existing CMSs have been made resulting in the evolution of a root level pivotal query i.e., “How to choose an optimal Content Management system for multi-dimensional scenarios”. This paper provides a thorough comparative analysis of available CMSs based on their documentation, Themes, Plugins, setups, Administration, Flexibility and Ease of Customization, Security, Scalability and the other relative aspects, and, suggests an explicit way to choose best Open Source Context Management System in multiple scenarios.

Keywords— CMS, Open Source, Comparison, Security and Scalability

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