Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2018

Energy Efficient Multiple Cluster Head Selection Routing Protocol

Noor-ul-Sabah and Tabinda Ashraf

Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

Abstract– The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is composed of several sensor nodes which are powered by small batteries. These sensor nodes have limited energy resources. The nodes monitor environmental and physical conditions and transfer data from source to destination. Energy consumption is one of the most critical issues of wireless sensor networks. One way to minimize energy consumption and maximize network lifetime is Clustering. In this research a new routing protocol is proposed for Wireless Sensor Networks named as Energy-Efficient-Multiple-Cluster-Head-Selection-Routing-Protocol (EEMCHRP). In this, Cluster-Heads (CHs) are selected and they broadcast ADV packets. The remaining network nodes send JOIN_REQ message to those CHs whose ADV packets signal strength is maximum. Cluster-Heads then allot TDMA slots to their member nodes. CHs aggregate and transfer all the information to Cluster Head Leader (CHL). CHL is selected among Cluster-Heads on the basis of residual energy. CHL assigns TDMA slots to CHS and aggregates the incoming data again. It is the only node that has a direct connection with the BS and all the data is send to BS through CHL. Due to this, CHs lifetime will be increased and consumption of energy will be decreased. The transmission of data through Lone Nodes is also optimized in this research. These nodes will be dealt by the CH-Leader. The proposed routing protocol will maximize the timespan of WSN’s life and minimize the power and energy consumption.

Keywords— WSN, Cluster Head, Cluster Head Leader, Base Station, Leach-B, ResEn and EEMCHRP

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Reliability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Embedded PVC Pipes Below the Neutral Axis

Wasiu John and A.A. Adedeji

Department of Civil Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Abstract– This research presents the reliability of reinforced concrete beam with embedded PVC pipes below the neutral axis. First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and the theory of Statistics are reviewed and adopted for designing the beam to a pre-determined safety level using a FORTRAN subroutine created and linked with the reliability software (FORM5). Experimental investigation of beams without PVC pipe (RCBM) and beams with one (RCPVC1), two (RCPVC2) and three (RCPVC3) PVC pipes were carried out using ASTMC 293. Results indicate satisfactory performance of RCPVC1 and RCBM with similar ultimate failure load. Other beams have reduced failure load. Reliability analysis using FORM5 revealed area of reinforcement 38.9% higher than deterministic design for RCBM and RCPVC1 beam with safety index, β=3.3-4.4 meeting the probabilistic code’s requirement and same area of reinforcement for RCPVC2 and RCPVC3 using deterministic design. It is concluded that the method is suitable for application.

Keywords— Beam, PVC Pipes, Reliability, FORM and Safety Index

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UPD: A Plagiarism Detection Tool for Urdu Language Documents

M. Hassaan Rafiq, Saad Razzaq and Tanzella Kehkashan

Department of Computer Science, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
Department of Computer Science & IT, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
Department of Computer Science & IT, University of Lahore, Sargodha, Pakistan

Abstract– In literature, various tools and techniques for plagiarism detection in natural language documents are developed, particularly for English language. In this article, we have proposed a tool for plagiarism detection in Urdu documents. The tool is based on the techniques of tokenization, stop word removal, chunking (trigram) and hashing (absolute hashing) of suspected documents for the detection of plagiarism. For performance evaluation, we have developed a prototype in Java and the performance of proposed tool is evaluated on five datasets of Urdu documents. Furthermore, T test is used to check the validity of our data sets.

Keywords— Plagiarism Detection, Urdu Language, Tokenization, Chunking and Hashing

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Molluscicidal Effect of Vernonia Amygdalina (Del) and Momordica Charantia. Linn. on Bulinus (Phy) Globosus

Ojochide Oguche and Olofintoye L.K.

Zoology and Environmental Science Department, Ekiti State University, P.M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Abstract– The molluscicidal activities of aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of V.amygdalina and M.charantia leaves against the juvenile and adult Bulinus (Phy) globosus were carried out. Five juveniles and five adults each were exposed to different concentrations of 200ppm, 400ppm, 600ppm and 800ppm of aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the two plants. Exposure period of 24hours was observed for both juvenile and adult snails. The mean lethal concentration LC50 that killed 50% of the juveniles using aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extract of V.amygdalina were (534.05ppm, 182.86ppm, 208ppm) and (558.99ppm, 269.86ppm and 236.9ppm) for M.charantia. The corresponding values for LC90 of V.amygdalina were (729.83ppm, 414.89ppm and424.27ppm) and (622.63ppm, 419.73ppm and1029.48ppm) for M.charantia. The LC50 Values for adult snails using aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extract of V.amygdalina were (537.3, 388.46 and 296.26ppm) and (473.49ppm, 388.46ppm and479.84ppm) for M.charantia. The corresponding LC90 values for adult snails using V.amygdalina were (762.8ppm, 450.45ppm and 597.56ppm) and (737.22ppm, 450.45ppm and 619.18ppm) for M.charantia. There were strong correlation between mortalities observed and concentration of both extracts. The result obtained shows that V.amygdalina and M.charantia are promising plants molluscicides and the molluscicidal components deserve further studies.

Keywords— Bulinus Globosus, Lethal Concentration, Momordica Charantia and Vernonia Amygdalina

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A Novel Approach to Road Traffic Monitoring and Control System

Franklin O. Okorodudu, Philip O. Okorodudu and Lawrence O. Atumah

Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnics, Otefe-Oghara, Nigeria
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Delta State Polytechnics, Otefe-Oghara, Nigeria

Abstract– Nowadays, increasing vehicular traffic volumes and dynamic traffic light management systems have become a huge challenge to road users and the society at large. These factors increase the stress level of commuters and drivers as they lead to time wastage and health related problems. This study developed a novel approach to road traffic monitoring and control system using a network of sensors and real-time image processing system to control traffic and reduce traffic gridlocks and environmental hazards resulting from smokes of car exhausts. The design consist of the power supply unit, the micro controller unit, the motion sensors, the timer, the digital calculator, the digital display and counter, the message processor and camera. The system takes into consideration the traffic jams and gives hints on how we can avoid the jammed traffic so we can be on time to our destination. Simulation of the various units was done individually using the procedural programming application Proteus 8. Most of the components used were according to design specifications from data book with alternatives used in cases where they are unavailable. The design was done in units and was tested individually and the whole system was tested collectively to perform the required task of giving a forecasted route to users. The designed model is capable of improving reliability, speed, operational safety and reducing pollution as well as road traffic jam.

Keywords— Digital Counter, Micro Controllers, Motion Sensors and Traffic Monitoring/Control

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