Volume 13, Issue 3, August 2022

Basic Working Structure of Metaverse: A Review

Hira Zaheer, Komal Ghafoor, Usman Ali Taj, Junaid Arshad

Computer Science Department, UET, Lahore-Pakistan

Abstract- METAVERSE, it’s a technology that will change the coming internet of things. Evolutions of virtual worlds where the user can meet up, shop, invest, play games and many more. This technology is the merger of many technologies like artificial intelligence, virtual reality, augmented reality Extended reality XR and global chain of internet which will be governed by the block chain. Against every transaction the NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens) will be created for the specific user. By owning a wallet with access to your private keys, you can instantly prove ownership of activity or an asset on the block chain. Here the major elaboration of these technologies merger how they will interact with each other to make a proper virtual environment.

Keywords- METAVERSE, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Internet of Things, NFTS, Cryptocurrency, Extended Reality, Artificial Intelligence and Block Chain

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Assessing the Inconsistency of Transformation Parameters on Geospatial Data for Cadastral Application: A Case of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia

Melese Wondatir, Getachew Tesfaye

Ethiopia Civil Service University, Ethiopia

Abstract- Datum transformation is the transformation of coordinate points from one known coordinate reference system into another. The recent practice of geospatial data collection, management, and analysis in Ethiopia is in geocentric coordinates of a point defined based on a global datum (WGS84). However, Ethiopia uses Adindan as the recognized local datum. The current official transformation parameters in use by Ethiopia are slightly different from the parameters determined by previous research and adopted in widely used geospatial software packages. In addition to this, the rotation and scale changes are ignored in the transformation parameters. Due to this and other factors, the current practice of cadaster in Addis Ababa city is below the accuracy level of all local and global geospatial data standard guidelines. The main purpose of this study is to assess and evaluate the effect of datum transformation on geospatial data for cadastral application in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. Five different models (Block Shift (Geocentric), Bursa-Wolf (Helmert), Molodensky-Badekas, Standard, and Abridged Molodensky models) using ten collocated ground control points were used to define the transformation parameters by using five different of height assumption scenarios like height zero methods, orthometric height method (OHM), Abridged Molodensky, EGM08, and iteration methods. In addition, the study evaluates the horizontal positional accuracy of orthophoto (x and y), second-order ground control points, and cadastral parcel corners for Addis Ababa city. Molodensky-Badekas and Block Shift (Geocentric) models are almost small residual (error), standard deviation and standard errors across the region of Ethiopia followed by Abridged, Standard, and Bursa-Wolf (Helmert) models in that order, within iterative height approach.........

Keywords- Adindan, Cadaster, Coordinate System, Datum Transformation Model and WGS84

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Security Metrics for Secure Smart Technology under IoT

Madiha Asif

Computer Science Department, UET, Lahore-Pakistan

Abstract- IoT based systems makes our world smarter and better than ever before which can provide faster and highly scalable access to data according to the requirements of users. However, security is the main concern of users for IoT adoption. The purpose of this research work is to establish secure data communication by identifying security metrics to measure the quality and security of IoT based system design. For the prevention of data loss and security breaching during data retrieval different Security challenges and their solutions are highlighted here. Mentioned below security metrics are identified at design level to measure quality and security of IoT based system i.e. Maintainability Metric (MM), Availability Metric (AM), Reliability Metric (RM), Serviceability Metric (SM), Strong Identity Metric (SIM), Ongoing connections Metric (OCM), No. of Services Metric (NSM), and Number of Attacks Metric (NAM). We can reduce the chances of security breaches with the help of these security metrics. A Smart Environment related to smart home and smart education institute is analyzed through MIMIC IoT simulator to validate and evaluate the highlighted security metrics. Then Results are discussed in order to improve security and minimize threats and vulnerabilities. These Security metrics can be computed automatically in future to show level of maintainability, availability, reliability, serviceability, Strong Identity, Ongoing connectivity, No. of Services, and Number of Attacks in Percentages of an IoT based system.

Keywords- IoT Devices, Security Metrics and Smart Environment

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Keywords- Pollution Detection System, IoT-Based, Forecasting, Solutions and Locations

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