Volume 7, Issue 4, May 2016
Comparative Analysis of Mobile Generations Regarding Technical Aspects
Khalil ullah, Muhammad Riaz, Abdul Qadir Khan and Anas Bilal
School of Information Technology, The University of Lahore, Islamabad
Development in human society is the essence of experience abandoned by each being through each innovation. We have seen the quick headway in the field of wireless systems that is from a straightforward broadcast in eighteenth century to 5G correspondence arrange very nearly being executed in one corner of the world. Human needs are for smarter never ended, they always try for new, smarter and faster technologies. In this paper we discuss whole developments in the field of mobile communication system from 0 to 6th generation. Now in this era we are finding way to introduce 5th generation which will be available for the customer’s in near 2020’s. We give the view how the 6th generation is look like, when it take place in the market of wireless communication system. We show block diagrams of signal transmission and give details of generations with the help of the diagrams. In the last portion of this paper we discussed the effectiveness of these generations. Its helps us to discover the proficient generation in the entire advancement.
— Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Long Term Evolution (LTE), High Speed Packet Data Access (HSPA) and Universal Mobile Telephone Services (UMTS)
Download full paper PDF format (Page: 1-7)
Design and Development of Smart Car
Arwaa Mahmood Khalifa Al Rashdi and G. R. Rameshkumar
Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat, Oman
Traffic jam is one of the most important global problems. Diversity and evolution of the economy increase the traffic jam in every country. This smart car system will reduce the number of car accidents during the traffic jam. And helps the driver by driving the car automatically during traffic jam, by keeping the car in one lane and make safe distance between the two cars. This system is developed using the open-source Arduino software (IDC) and three sensors. The IR sharp sensor is to control the distance and BlackWhite sensors to measures the two road lines.
— Accidents, Smart Car, Sensors and Traffic
Download full paper PDF format (Page: 8-14)
Lie Symmetry Solution of Fourth Order Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation: (yy'(y(y')-1)")'=0
T. J. O. Aminer, N. Omolo Ongati and M. E. Oduor Okoya
School of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 210-40601, Bondo, Kenya
The equation F (x,y,y',y",y'",y(4))=0
is a one-space dimension version of wave equation. Its solutions can be classified either as analytic or numerical using finite difference approach, where the convergence of the numerical schemes depend entirely on the initial and boundary values given. In this paper, we have used Lie symmetry analysis approach to solve the wave equation given since the solution does not depend on either boundary or initial values. Thus in our search for the solution we exploited a systematic procedure of developing infinitesimal transformations, generators, prolongations (extended transformations), variational symmetries, adjoint-symmetries, integrating factors and the invariant transformations of the problem. The procedure is aimed at lowering the order of the equation from fourth to first order, which is then solved to provide its Lie symmetry solution.
— Lie Symmetries Analysis, Symmetry Reduction, Ordinary Differential Equations, Infinitesimal Transformations, Transformation Generators, Prolongations (Extended Transformations), Variational Symmetries, Adjoint-Symmetries, Integrating Factors and Invariant Transformations
Download full paper PDF format (Page: 15-20)
A Paper on Synthesis of an Electronic Controller for a Hybrid Solar and Wind Renewable Energy Supply System
Paul Obafemi Abraham-Attah and Ulakom Herbert Igbang
Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
An electronic controller to provide switching for an hybrid solar and wind energy renewable power supply system was developed to enable stand-alone hybrid renewable energy source units to provide seamless operation. This will be useful in rural homesteads, hinterland farming communities and such environments which are often not connected to national power grids.
— Renewable Energy, Electronic Controller, Hybrid Solar and Wind Power
Download full paper PDF format (Page: 21-30)