Volume 8, Issue 6, October 2017

A Novel Combination of the V-BLAST Algorithm with Kalman Filter for Single User MIMO LTE Downlink

Dhurgham Abdulridha Jawad Al-Khaffaf, Navin Gurung and John Cosmas

School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Brunel University London, United Kingdom
Engineering Technical College/Najaf, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Iraq

Abstract– Long Term Evolution (LTE) utilizes various kinds of technologies at downlink such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technique, which is either used to reduce Bit Error Rate (BER) as spatial diversity or to increase the capacity as spatial multiplexing. It's commonly known that the maximization of spatial diversity gain leads to degrade the spatial multiplexing gain or vice versa. In order to enhance both spatial multiplexing and diversity gains in rich scattering environments, a new combination of Vertical-Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (V-BLAST) and Kalman filter has been introduced simultaneously. Such scheme is tested for different channel types such as Rayleigh and Rician channels with realistic radio environments such as Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), User Defined, Rural Area, Typical Area, Bad Urban, and Hilly Terrain. The simulation results show the maximum capacity achieves in AWGN environment over Rayleigh channel with 2x2-MIMO. Whereas, in case 4x4-MIMO, the highest capacity is obtained in Rural area environment over Rayleigh channel. The proposed system improves both the reliability and capacity in rich scattering environments such as Bad urban environment and Hilly terrain environment compared with conventional system.

Keywords— LTE, OFDM, MIMO, Linear Detectors, V-BLAST and Kalman Filter

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Importance of Internet of Things (IoT) in Livestock Industry in Pakistan’s Perspective

Muhammad Wasim Abbas Ashraf, Syed Ferhan Hussain, Muhammad Arif and Mujahid Rafiq

Department of Computer Science, University of Central Punjab, Pakistan

Abstract– The word Internet is like umbrella in which all worlds are working under its shadow. It has many capabilities and provides awesome facilities such as Internet of Things (IoT). It plays an effective role to trace animals, monitoring animal farms, managing its products and determine the diseases. No doubt IoT is very helpful to livestock in Pakistan. But the term IoT still not famous in livestock department in Pakistan due to its high cost, complex implementation, technical staff requirements and financial resources. In this study we discuss the role of IoT and its hidden facts on livestock department. The noticeable of animals and their products are very hot issues in Pakistan. This study provides the platform where we can trace the animals, monitoring farms, produce good quality products, overcome security issues, determine diseases and give healthy food items to our nation. With the help of IoT we can determine those issues which a human mind not detects. Therefore, the expert system which based on IoT must be constructing in Pakistan livestock industry, especially in University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) to enhance their livestock, veterinary department regarding diagnostic issues of animals and make them easily traceable with the help of IoT.

Keywords— IoT, RIFD, USDA and UAF

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Kinetic Studies on Oil Sorption Using Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse and Groundnut Husk

Chiaha P.N., Nwabueze H.O., Ezekannagha C.B. and Okenwa C.J.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria
Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria

Abstract– Crude oil spill has a great negative influence on the ecosystem by putting the marine lives at high risk. The treatment of an oil spill remains a challenge to the environmental scientists. Natural organic sorbents are emerging as proper choices for oil spill cleanup due to their availability, eco-friendliness and low cost. In this study, groundnut husk and sugarcane bagasse were treated with acetic anhydride to increase their hydrophobic properties and improve their sorption effectiveness in aqueous environments. The results shows that acetylated sugarcane bagasse are more suitable sorbent than acetylated groundnut husk for oil sorption. The pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order were analyzed and pseudo-second- order provided the best fit with R2 values of, AGH (0.964), RGH (0.989) and ASB (0.992), RSB (0.996) respectively. The Intraparticle diffusion and Liquid film diffusion mechanism were also analyzed. The intraparticle diffusion mechanism produced a better R2 than the liquid film diffusion model for the acetylated sorbents which is an indication that penetration into the pores of the materials was more predominant than surface sorption. The results presented in this study indicated that acetylated sugarcane bagasse and groundnut husk are suitable sorbents with the potential for further development for oil spill treatment.

Keywords— Oil Spillage, Acetylation, Kinetics, Sugarcane Bagasse and Groundnut Husk

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Lie Symmetry Solution of Fourth Order Ordinary Differential Equation: y(4) = (y)-1 y' y'"

Rodgers K. Adenyah, Titus J.O. Aminer and Oduor M. Okoya

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Pwani University, P.O. Box 195, Kilifi, Kenya
School of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 210, Bondo, Kenya

Abstract– Lie group theory is a mathematical tool used in solving nonlinear differential equations. These differential equations have turned up to be very handy in applied mathematics. This theory is applied to differential equations occurring as mathematical models. It’s rich, very interesting and in broad sense a topic of active mathematical research. Efforts to obtain solutions to a variety of differential equations by use of Lie symmetry have been in existence for a long period of time. In this paper we solve a harmonic fourth order non-linear ordinary differential equation y(4) = (y)-1 y' y'", and obtain its general solution using Lie Symmetry Group Invariant method. This method makes use of Infinitesimal transformations, symmetries and integrating factors.

Keywords— Differential Equation, Generator, Infinitesimal Transformation and Lie Group

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Strength Characteristics of Concrete using Waste Glass Powder Strengthened by Renolith as Partial Replacement for Cement

Wasiu John and Garba Yaro Saifullahi

Department of Civil Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Abstract– This study investigate the effects of using Environmental Waste Glass powder (EWG) to partially replace cement in concrete. Laboratory work was conducted on concrete cubes with cement content partially replaced at 0%, 10%, 15%, 25%, 50% and 75% by EWG powder strengthened by Renolith and tested for it workability and compressive strength. Results of workability tests indicate close agreement with normal concrete at 15-25% GP replacement. The compressive strength of normal concrete is 12.7% higher than 10%-15%GP. Addition of Renolith at 5-25% increases the strength characteristics of the concrete cube and at 50%-75%, the strength decreases. Maximum increase in strength of concrete occurred at 25% replacement with EWG powder and 25% Renolith. It is concluded that EWG powder improves the strength properties of concrete and provide sustainable alternative to the volume of land filling and reducing disposal problems.

Keywords— Concrete, Cement, Glass Powder, Renolith and Compressive Strength

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