Volume 10, Issue 2, March 2019

Study of Failure in Rigid Pavements: A Review

Asif Hayat, Muhammad Jamil Khan and Muhammad Majid Naeem

Department of Civil Engineering, IQRA NATIONAL University Peshawar, Pakistan
Department of Civil Engineering, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar

Abstract- The basic sufficiency of inflexible asphalt can regularly be anticipated dependent on its auxiliary reaction to the connected burdens. While impressive learning of asphalt conduct under static burdens is accessible expansive, just extremely predetermined numbers of studies have been completed in the past to decide the impact of dynamic loads on unbending asphalt disintegrations. Subsequently, assessments contrast about which sort of load (static or dynamic) results in more noteworthy estimations of base diversion or flexural stretch. The solid asphalt has been considered as versatile medium. The material nonlinearity of the subgrade has been glorified by Drucker-Prager yield measure. The limited component conditions wind up nonlinear because of the material nonlinearity of the subgrade. These conditions have been fathomed by Full Newton Raphson Method. In view of limited component investigation weight versus nodal diversion, nodal push, component stretch bends; variety of nodal redirection, component worry with diminishing tallness have been acquired and considered. The weight versus nodal diversion, nodal stretch, component push bends are nonlinear. For any weight the component stretch (Sigy) is more than the components push (Sigx). The solid asphalts are currently multi day's ending up increasingly well known in India in light of soak ascend in the expense of bituminous asphalt. The biggest preferred standpoint of utilizing inflexible asphalt is its sturdiness and capacity to hold a shape against traffic and troublesome ecological conditions. Albeit solid asphalt is more affordable yet has less upkeep and great plan life. The primary goal of this investigation is to display a relative survey on appropriateness of asphalt contingent upon different parameters, for example, material, stacking, longer life, cost adequacy and so on.

Keywords- Flexible Pavement, Rigid Pavement, Life Cost Analysis, Durability and Strength

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Parameter Setting and Optimal Location and of UPFC for Promoting Security of Power System Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm

Hawbir Mhamad, Raza Ahmad

Kscien organization, hamdi street, Sulaimany, Iraq

Abstract- Improving power systems security that use single line contingencies based on a new approach is the main point of this paper. The method entails finding optimal Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) setting by utilizing Differential Evolution (DE) technique. The performance indexes are analyzed to determine the lines with the most bus voltage limit violations and overloads, and are designated as the most severe line contingencies. With the contingency simulations determined, the best setting for UPFC location and parameter is found by applying DE technique. Our approach is tested by running simulations on IEEE 30 bus and IEEE 14 bus systems. The results indicate the bus voltage limitations and overload lines are significantly reduced, enhancing power system securities when UPFC is installed in a location optimized by DE.

Keywords- Energy, Power System, Electricity and Security

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Study of Failure of Flexible Pavements: A Review

Syed Abid Ullah Shah, Asif Hayat, Majid Naeem and Muhammad Jamil Khan

Civil Engineering Department, Iqra National University, Peshawar
Civil Engineering Department, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar

Abstract- Road is a multi-layer's structure that appropriates the vehicular loads over a vast zone. road contains three essential layers. The primary layer is Sub level (Gravel), the second layer is sub base and the third layer is base which contains Bituminous Macadam. Black-top is primary layer legitimately bearing vehicular burden. The investigation had two noteworthy objectives which secured by taking thought of following two points, the first was the visual view and examination of existing adaptable asphalt conditions including the disappointments, and the second to decide and discover the primary driver of these disappointments in the asphalt.

Keywords- Crack, Pavement Distress, Road and Flexible Pavement

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Evaluating Security Threads for Each Layered IoT System

Hamza and J. Arshad

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Abstract- The IoT word is the networks of different devices that connect to Internet and let us allow to control them by using Internet. With the increase of the demand of IoT we have to understand some of the important things about the IoT. To understand the architecture of IoT world, a layered approach is used and according to that approach we divided into three different layers. As we know the IoT have heterogeneous devices so that make our network less secure and data is also store on cloud and we are accessing our data at some remote location with the help of some application. So, all these things can make the communication less secure. In this review paper, we will see the a) layer base architecture for the IoT b) attacks can be performed c) solution for that attacks and try to make sure the security of our data on each layer.

Keywords- IoT Security, IoT Layers, Security Issues, Architecture and Attacks

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