Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2015

Integrating Participation in Estimating Soil’s Economic Value

Matthew Oliver L. Dimal

College of Engineering, University of the Philippines – Diliman
ITC Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation of the University of Twente

Abstract– Although soil's anthropogenic contributions are evident, conservation measures and policies on sustainable use have not always been successful. One main reason is the public's inaccurate depiction and misperception of its relation with human well-being. Economic valuation of soil highlights the need for environmental conservation in the decision making process. Fundamental principles in the science of understanding and estimating economic value for environmental goods and services are becoming well-established, except for particular issues that still remain contentious. One under-appreciated theme is in stakeholder participation and deliberation, which remain in obscurity due to intrinsic factors limiting greater acceptance. There remains an apparent isolation for greater stakeholder participation in most valuation frameworks. This paper focuses on estimating the economic value of soil and discusses how participatory modelling can be integrated in the various valuation frameworks: stock flow and fund service framework, cost-based assessment approach, and total economic value approach. It also examines present constraints and how they can be addressed for future studies.

Keywords— Economic Value, Environmental Economics, Participatory Modelling and Soil

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 1-9)

An Empirical Study of SQA Function Effectiveness in CMMI Certified Companies
Implementation, Problems, and Recommendations

Zille Subhan and Ali Saeed Khan

Senior Software Engineer, Web-tronix, Islamabad, Pakistan
National University of Computer and Emerging Science, Lahore, Pakistan

Abstract– The most vital component for any software development process is, “quality”, as it ensures the reliability and effectiveness of new software. Software Quality Assurance (SQA) techniques as well as a standardized qualitative metric known as Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) are used to ensure this quality. The purposes of both the practices are same as both make efforts for end product’s quality. In spite of this, CMMI certified organizations have SQA function, but face a lot of issues, which resulted in lowering the quality of the products. Standards usually provide documentation, but SQA consider testing as a chief element and also documentation only for authentication and appraisals. The relationship of the SQA function with CMMI has not attended much in common literatures. This paper is centered on investigation conducted through data collection from diverse CMMI certified software development firm to check the practice of SQA function.

Keywords— Software Development Process, SQA, CMMI and Software Quality Frameworks

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 10-14)

Effect of Surface Wettability and Spreading on Nanofluids Boiling Heat Transfer

Osita Sunday Nnyigide and Kyu Hyun

Department of Chemical Engineering, Pusan National University, South Korea

Abstract– Surface wettability is one of the mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of pool boiling heat transfer. This work investigates the effect of surface wettability and spreading on nanofluids pool boiling heat transfer. Water, ethylene glycol, water-ethylene-glycol base fluids and nanofluids containing TiO2 in different concentrations were studied on polished stainless steel substrate in an environmental chamber at 20, 25, 50, 70 and 800C respectively.

Keywords— Contact Angle, Pool Boiling and Surface Wettability

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 15-18)

Characterization of Hydrolyzed Products of Tetra Ethoxy Silane Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

A. H. Elhaj Yousif, O.Y. Omer Alhussein, M.S. Ali Eltoum

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education, University of Alfashir, Alfashir, Sudan
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
Chemistry Department, College of Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

Abstract– In the present paper, the hydrolyzed products prepared by acid or base catalyzed hydrolysis of Tetra ethoxy silane (TEOS) were characterized using different Techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). FTIR spectroscopy revealed the existence of Si-OH and Si-O-Si bonds due to the formation of silanols reactive intermediate compounds in initial stage converted by condensation reaction to the gels as ultimate products. The results of (XRD) analysis showed that the hydrolyzed products had amorphous nature. Chemical reactions involved in Sol-Gel process have been emphasized by the results of thermal analysis as hydrolysis endothermic process followed by condensation exothermic process. Hydrolysis of TEOS in the presence of acid or base catalyst was studied. It was found that the gelation time for base catalyzed hydrolysis of TEOS is longer than the gelation time of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of TEOS in similar experimental conditions, because the rate of hydrolysis, or gelation increase as hydrogen ion concentration increases.

Keywords— Sol-Gel, Tetra Ethoxy Silane, Hydrolysis, FTIR Spectroscopy, Thermal Analysis and Silanols

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 19-22)

QoS Aware Wavelength Assignment in Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Optical Networks

U. Mahmud, N.A. Malik, B. Rauf, K.A. Bhatti and H. Afzal

Department of Software Engineering, Foundation University Rawalpindi Campus (FURC), Foundation University Islamabad (FUI), Islamabad, Pakistan
Management Information System, Pakistan Naval Engineering College (PNEC), Karachi, Pakistan
Department of Computer Software Engineering, Military College of Signals (MCS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract– Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is used in optical networks to implement data circuits. These circuits allow exchange of information as a measure of wavelength in optical domain. Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning is one of the issues in WDM optical networks. This paper discusses different QoS aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) algorithms. Some unaddressed issues are identified that include the effects of degraded performance, traffic patterns and type of QoS service for users. A software module is proposed that calculates a ‘D’ factor facilitating in the wavelength assignment for QoS provisioning. This module is designed to work in conjunction with existing RWA algorithms.

Keywords— QoS Aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment, Wavelength Division Multiplexing Networks, Wavelength Assignment and Optical Networks

Download full paper PDF format (Page: 23-27)