Volume 9, Issue 7, July 2018

Cost Control and Budget’s Errors Minimized in Construction with Use of Softwares

Raphael Lúcio Reis dos Santos, Rogério Cabral de Azevedo, Conrado de Souza Rodrigues and Vinícius Antônio Florentino Camargo

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG)
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)

Abstract– The aim of this paper is identify and list the most common errors in budgets and cost control in construction, as well as assessing how the use of specific software for the cost estimating process helps to minimize these errors. It is an exploratory research study based on a case study for the implementation of the budget’s software in a Brazilian construction company. The literature review discusses the concept for budgeting in the projects, the most frequent errors and the use of specific software for budget and cost control in construction. The developed case study describes, through verbal interviews with professionals, the main trivial errors that occurred in budgets. It comparative study between budgets performed before and after the implementation of the program, identifying the factors that cause errors, in order to verify that the use of specific software for budget contributed to eliminate or minimize the budgeting errors and cost control.

Keywords— Budget and Cost Control, Cost Estimating Process Softwares, Errors in Budgets Minimizing Errors in Budgets and Use of Technology in Construction

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Geology and Mineral Resources of Kogi State, Nigeria

Fatoye Felix Bamidele

Department of Mineral and Petroleum Resources Engineering, Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Nigeria

Abstract– Kogi State is located in the north-central Nigeria. It is popularly called the Confluence State because the confluence of Rivers Niger and Benue is at its capital, Lokoja, which is the first administrative capital of modern–day Nigeria. The State lies between longitudes 60 42′ and 60 70′ E and latitudes 70 30′ and 70 50′ N. It has a landmass of 29,833 square kilometres. The geological setting of Kogi State is unique in view of the occurrence of the two major components of Nigerian geology (Basement Complex and Sedimentary Basin). Approximately, half of the State, the western flank, is covered by crystalline Basement Complex of Precambrian age while the other half, the eastern flank, is covered by Cretaceous to Recent sediments. The Basement Complex is made up of Migmatite-Gneiss Complex, the Schist Belts and the Older Granites and the sedimentary area, which is the Anambra Basin, consists of sedimentary rocks that form part of Cretaceous to Recent sediments of Nigeria. Kogi State is richly endowed with mineral resources. Over twenty mineral resources have so far been reported in the State by the Geological Survey of Nigeria Agency (GSNA). Mineral deposits of economic significance that occur in the two geologic segments of Kogi State among others include; beryl, cassiterite, clay, coal, columbite, feldspar, fire clay, garnet, gold, granite, iron ore, kaolin, magnetite, marble, mica, muscovite, silica sand, quartz, talc, tantalite and tourmaline in alphabetical order.

Keywords— Basement Complex, Confluence State, Sedimentary Basin and Mineral Resources

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Comparison of Cryotherapy and Immunotherapy in Warts Treatment

Yasir Ali, Mubashar Shahzad and Ali Akbar

Department Of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

Abstract– Warts are the most common skin disease in medical science which appears on human body due to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There are many treatments to remove them from human body but two treatments are common and effective for the cure the human body from warts (cryotherapy and immunotherapy). Many researchers did their best to treat the warts using several treatments such as, intralesional injection, candida antigen, surgical removal, oral drugs and laser ablation treatments. They divided their data set into two groups named as group A, Group B or Cryotherapy group and Immunotherapy group and give both group two treatments and predict the effectiveness that, which treatment result is better than other. Mostly, results found that, treatment of immunotherapy is effective than cryotherapy. In our study, we divided the record of 180 patients into dataset equally named as Cryotherapy and Immunotherapy and pre-process it but not found any missing values, noise and outliers in our dataset. We apply some algorithms such as, K-Nearest Neighbor, Naïve Bayes and Decision Tree to show that which treatment is more effective from both. Results shows that, treatment of cryotherapy is more effective than immunotherapy after implementation in two algorithms but in one remain the same.

Keywords— Cryotherapy, Algorithms, Treatment, Comparison and Immunotherapy

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Geodynamic Mineralization Training of Pb-Zn-Fe-Ba-Cu, Case of Aouli Inlier - Upper Moulouya Visean Basin of the Moroccan Hercynean Belt

N. Saoud, J. Choukrad, S. Mounir and M. Charroud

Laboratory of Georesource Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University of Fes, Morocco

Abstract– The Aouli Inlier is located in the eastern Meseta domain of Morocco, which corresponds to the internal part of the Hercynean belt. The area shows a multi-phased deformation resulting from the issue of the succession of the Panafrican, Hercynean, Atlasic and Alpine epeiorogenic cycles. The establishment of Aouli Pb-Zn deposit manifests this complexed geological structuring, and shows a typical deposit corresponding to the acquirement of two under mineralized systems dated Paleozoic and Trias, respectively manifested as Sedimentary Exhalative (SEDEX) and Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit (VMS). In Fact, the present paper interests the study Pb-Zn-Fe-Ba-Cu mineralization of Aouli, based on the geological field data and petrographic and metallogenic interpretations, in order to elaborate geodynamical models that describes the different mineralized process and events.

Keywords— Meseta, Hercynean, Panafrican, Atlas, Alpine, VMS and SDEX

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