Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2015

Finite Difference Analysis of 2-Dimensional Acoustic Wave with a Signal Function

Opiyo Richard Otieno, Alfred Manyonge, Owino Maurice and Ochieng Daniel

Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Maseno University, Kenya
Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, University of Kabianga, Kenya

Abstract– This paper describes progress on a two dimensional numerical simulation of acoustic wave propagation that has been developed to visualize the propagation of acoustic wave fronts and to provide time-domain signal. In this exercise, we have simulated propagation of sound in such a medium using both explicit and Crank Nicolson finite difference schemes, we have also tested for stability of the developed schemes using Vonn Newmann and Matrix stability analysis together with its associated code in matlab. The stability analyses of the developed schemes revealed that Explicit scheme was conditionally stable while the Hybrid one (Crank Nicolson Scheme) was unconditionally stable, for all values of courant number r. The rate of convergence of the algorithms depend on the truncation error introduced when approximating the partial derivatives, the Crank-Nicolson method converged at the rate of (k2 + h2), which is a faster rate of convergence than either the explicit method, or the implicit method.

Keywords— Acoustic Wave, Finite Difference Approximation, Signal Function, Crank Nicolson, Vonn Newman and Matrix Stability Analysis

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Installation of Solar Power System used for Street Lights and Schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Iftikhar Javed Khan, Yawar Hayat Khan, Salman Rashid, Javed Ali Khan and Mian Izaz ur Rehman

School of Information Technology, University of Lahore, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, 4400, Pakistan
Department of Software Engineering University of Science and Technology Bannu, 28100, Pakistan

Abstract– The constant supply of energy on earth is solar energy which is both directly and indirectly used. A part of sun rays can be changed in to applicable electricity by means of an entrusting technology Solar Photovoltaic (PV). This publication emphasis upon the idea of conforming Solar PV panels and sunlight to depict and operate solar system in different areas in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The ultimate goal of the solar system will be to enlighten the solar LED street lights, energy savers and tube lights in streets and different schools. This type of solar system is very cost effective in a way that it needs little expenditure initially and less care.

Keywords— Solar Panel, LED Lighting System, Pole, Batteries, Charge Controller, Inverters and Cooling Box

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Development of Ceramic Filter Candle from NSU (Kaolinite Clay) for Household Water Treatment

S. C. Agbo, E. U, Ekpunobi, C. C. Onu and K. G. Akpomie

Ceramics Production Department (CPD), Project Development Institute (PRODA), Enugu State, Nigeria
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract– This work was aimed at developing an effective ceramic water filter candle that is inexpensive and affordable by all and sundry. The ceramic bodies were formulated from Nsu-clay and combustible materials which act as pore-creating agent. The formulated bodies were subjected to physical analysis to determine some parameters which showed that the compounded ceramic bodies were effective in treatment of water. The Casting method of production was used to form candle shape and subjected to atmospheric drying and fired to temperature of 9000C. The Nsu-clay filter-treated water samples were compared with that of raw water. The results indicate that Nsu-clay filter is very effective in removing suspended particles, coloured dissolved substances, unsavory odours and taste. Nsu-clay filter candle is mechanically strong, permeable and cheap, providing quality water drinking while the technology is accessible to all class of people and also the high abundance of raw materials make production of Nsu-clay filter economically viable.

Keywords— Web Application Testing, Black Box Testing, White Box Testing, Browser Compatibility, Unit Testing and Integration Testing

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Density and Thermal Conductivity Changes in Engine Oil During its Life Cycle: An Experimental Study

Sudhir Chitrapady Vishweshwara and Omar Khamis Hamed Al Badi

Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, P.O. Box 2322, Al-Hail, PC 111, Sultanate of Oman

Abstract– Oil is used in internal combustion engines purely for lubrication. The main function is to minimize wear of moving parts. The lubricating oil also helps to clean and prevent corrosion of engine parts. It's further helps in sealing, and cools the moving parts of the engine. The few critical properties of engine oils are: Thermal conductivity, Density and Viscosity, these properties determine the worthy of the oil in its real world applications. Current paper focuses on the experimental analysis on few important Thermo-Physical Properties especially Thermal conductivity and Density of Engine Oils over the period of its use. The purpose is to know how the properties change with time and temperature. For the purpose of study, different vehicles were used and tested in order to study changes in thermal conductivity and density. For the study, three sedan cars and one heavy duty truck was considered for study. The thermal conductivity was measured by using KD2 pro device, Density was measured by using a standard density measuring 25ml standard glassware. From this study it was discovered that, the relationship between temperature and thermal conductivity, Density and viscosity is inversely. Furthermore the thermal conductivity and density inside engine increase by running time. The study included three passenger vehicles and one truck engine oil sample were drawn at the each interval of 1000 kilometer of running starting form new oil till it is being replaced. The testing was carried out at different temperatures so that it reflects temperature conditions inside the engine. The studies indicate an inverse relationship between thermal conductivity of engine oil and the temperature inside the vehicles. Further thermal conductivity decreases with running period.

Keywords— Engine Oil, Density, Thermal Conductivity and Life Cycle

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Norms of Tensor Products Elementary Operators

Beatrice A. Odero, John A. Ogonji and G. K. Rao

School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, P. O. Box Private Bag, Maseno, Kenya

Abstract– In this paper, we determine the norm of a two-sided symmetric operator in an algebra. More precisely, we investigate the lower bound of the operator using the injective tensor norm. Further, we determine the norm of the inner derivation on irreducible C*- algebra and confirm Stamfli’s result for these algebras.

Keywords— Bounded Operators, Derivation, Two Sided symmetrised Operator and Algebra

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